Mr. G. Mallikarjuna Swamy, Faculty (Rural Development), Abdul Nazir Sab State Institute of Rural Development, Mysuru was one of my well-wishers and a good friend was a resource person on the topic “Decentralised Planning” for the Social Work Students’ Forum, Department of Studies in Social Work, University of Mysore, Mysuru.
His expertise on the topic helped the students to understand the structure and functions of Panchayat Raj Institutions in India.
Characteristics of the group define the basics of a group to call a group as a group. Understanding of group is easy when you explain the characteristics of a group. A thorough understanding of each characteristic makes you differentiate between a group and mobs, crowd, audience, spectators.
Lets study the characteristics of groups one by one
- Group has a size
size of the group is the basic feature of the group otherwise it becomes an individual. To call a group a group, you need a minimum of 2 members in the group. A good example is a couple (husband and wife) and it is also an example of a primary group. There are also big-sized groups like a political party. But other factors also matter since we do not call mobs, the crowd as groups
2. Group has a continuos interaction
Continuous interaction is another feature or characteristic to call a group a group. Man cannot live in isolation without any interaction with other people. Through continuous interaction, he will be in touch with other people. Sharing of feelings happens only through interaction. Both positive and negative changes happen only there is a continuous interaction. Correction of mistakes will be done through training, coaching, and counseling with a definite pattern of interaction. We witness both formal and informal interactions in a group. Stress and anxiety are also a result of unpleasant interactions between the members of the group.
3. Group is Stable
The group is stable for a certain and long period of time. Mobs, crowd, audience, spectators, etc are not stable. They scatter within a short period of time. The intimacy amongst the members of the group lasts for a long time making the group stable. Interaction and we-feeling make the group more stable.
4. Members of the group always show we-feeling
As the group develops, continuous interaction also develops. We- feeling is a result of continuous interaction. Bonding Facilitates we-feeling. We feeling is belongingness among the members of the group. We-feeling develops a positive relationship, love, and affection between the members of a group. When the we-feeling is strong, definitely cooperation is strong among the members of the group.
5. Development of sense of identity
Identity shows the affiliation of group members towards that group. Identity develops a sense of psychological safety and support for the members. It also develops a sense of pride to relate himself/herself towards that group. Group is a reference point to show identity.
6. Impact on Personality
A group may be described as a collection of people who have an impact on one another. Individuals are not a group unless they influence and are influenced by one another. Social groups influence the personalities of their members directly or indirectly.
7. Group Norms
Every group has its own set of rules or standards that members must adhere to. Customs, folkways, mores, traditions, and laws, for example, are examples of norms. Norms and standards can be written or unwritten. Every group has its own set of norms and methods for disciplining or correcting individuals who break them. Without some rules, man’s ongoing group existence becomes nearly impossible.
8. Common Interests
Groups have shared interests and ideals. The majority of groups are founded or organised to pursue certain goals. The composition of the groups varies based on the group’s mutual interests. As aresult, there are political, religious, and economic groupings.
9. Collection of Individuals
Social Groups always have the membership of people . There can be no groups without people.
10. Behaviour will be Similar
For the sake of pursuing shared goals, group members operate in a more or less identical manner. Collective behaviour is representation of Social Groups.
11. Solidarity and Unity in the Group
A sense of belonging binds the members of a group. The Solidarity and Unity of a group’s interaction is primarily determined by the frequency, variety, and emotional quality of its members’ interactions.
Every group has its own goals on which it works. People or members always join a group to achieve their goals which is through groups. A group may be described as a group of people who work together to achieve a common purpose.
13. Motivation by members
A group may be described as a group of people who are all striving to meet some personal need through their shared association. Individuals are not a group unless they are driven to be a part of one for personal reasons.
I am a winner
I should come into your belief system. Then only I will be the winner.
I am healthy.
I am honest.
I am careful.
I am powerful.
I am dedicated.
I am capable.
I am ready
Understand the following to enhance your success rate and to come out of failures.
When you have this belief, definitely you will gain confidence and will come out of fears.
Leaving the fear is also seems to be a difficult task till a belief comes to your heart that I can live independently. Fearlessly putting steps forward should remove the already held beliefs in your mind and a new set of beliefs should come to your heart. It seems very difficult and needs constant training in your mind to accept the reality.
Every person is driven by wants of his own. The majority of people customize their wants. No disease has control over our body. But it is the possession by us by our negative beliefs. You can heal this without medicines. Medicine is nothing but your course of beliefs, actions, strategies, and implementations. Don’t hang to a particular belief, actions, strategies, methods of implementation.
Weigh the person and the situation
Individuals and situations need you for their profits only. Showing so much loyalty sometimes leads to unexpected failures and results. Reverting back is impossible. The equivalent results to your loyalty is a sometimes (not every time) is a fantasy.
Both persons and situations make your life worst. People do drama and show lots of loyalty and also sympathy just to get their work done. When your need is over and at the end, they will throw you away. Misusing and overusing are common ways of exploiting your knowledge, experience, and money. It is all about giving and taking to live a good life. But be careful when giving and also taking because majority of the honest people are exploited.
Situations weaken your heart, mind, and brain and finally lead to failures (if you are calculative, it leads to success). Modern-day life is also smart and stage managed (another face of smartness). Every individual should be smart that his every behaviour leads to a profit.
So be careful……..
- Be in Josh..
- Be Open.
- Greet the familiar faces.
- Sometimes behaviour matters not dress.
- Proper diet is the best way to health and energy.
- Talk to your competency.
- Love yourself.
- Create To-Do-List.
- Read Motivational Quotes.
- Happy harmones are stimulated through positive thoughts.
- Do Everyday or Periodic Evaluation
We live in groups. Every day’s interactions happen in the groups. Social activities, economic activities, and any other transactions happen only in the groups. But we are yet to know about groups.
When any person generally thinks about a group, a group is a collection of people who can interact with each other. Their interaction, behaviour, and body language significantly impact the members of the group. It will have objectives or goals. Members of the group are interdependent.
According to Sherif and Sherif
“A group is a social unit consisting of a number of individuals who stand in role and status of relationship to one another, stabilizing in some degree at the time and who process a set of values or norms of their own behaviour, at least, in matters of consequence to the group”
By the above definition it is sure that a group is a social unit having number of persons playing their own roles and they are related to one another in one or the other way. It has stability over a period of time with a set of rules and values to depict their behaviour.
R M Williams (1951) explains group as –
“A social group is a given aggregate of people playing inter-related roles and recognised by themselves or other as a unit of interaction.”
The above definition explains group as a collection of people and they are inter-related by delivering their roles. Each member has recognition in the group because of the interaction with other members.
Wilson & Hanna define group as –
“A collection of three or more individuals who interact about some common problem or interdependent goal and can exert mutual influence over one another”
When there are three or more than three person, it will be called as a group. They always interact with each other to solve their problems and they are mutually dependent. Personality of one member influences on the personality of other member.
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There are 4 main approaches to Organizational Behaviour
- Human Resource Approach
- Contingency Approach
- Productivity Approach
- System Approach
- Human Resource Approach
Employees are highly valued resources in any organization. They should be recognized. Employees’ growth and development should be emphasized so that they can reach their best levels of skills, competencies, creativity and satisfaction. These are focused under the Human Resource Approach. employees become better, handle more responsibilities ultimately contributing to a better environment. This method is also called as “Supportive Method” since manager’s role is to support the growth and success of employees instead of managing them.
2. Contingency Approach
In the past one standardized technique which was also traditional was used for every situation. Whereas in Contingency Approach, different behavioural approaches are used for different situations for more productivity. Here in this approach, every situation must be carefully reviewed and major variables are identified. Finally, best practices are decided those will fit into situations. A thorough examination of each situation before deciding the action is the core strength of this approach. Existing knowledge of every employee is easily used for the development of the organization.
3. Productivity Approach
We explain productivity by comparing the ratio of output units with input units. The frequent measure is economic inputs and outputs. Productivity improves when more outputs can be generated from the same number of inputs. Human and Social inputs and outputs are also important along with economic inputs and outputs.
4. System Approach
A group of interconnected units that perform together is called a system. In any organization ’employees’ harness ‘technology’ to perform ‘tasks’ and these tasks are assigned to them. An ‘organizational structure’ is the base that coordinates all these tasks. This approach emphasizes the interconnection of these units within the organization to function smoothly. The interface between the organization and the adjacent larger environment is the key here. A larger environment includes social, economic, and political environments.
Different authors have defined Organizational Behaviour. Some of the definitions given by prominent authors are as follows.
The study of human behaviour in organisational settings, the interaction between human behaviour and the organisation, and the organisation itself is known as organisational behaviour.
According to L. M. Prasad
“Organisational behaviour can be defined as the study and application of knowledge about human behaviour related to other elements of an organisation such as structure, technology and social systems.”
The author explains that human behaviour should be studied and this knowledge is applied to know its relationship with other domains of the organization such its structure, what technology it is using and the social system it is surrounded by.
According to Fred Luthans
“Organisational behaviour is directly concerned with the understanding production and control of human behaviour in organization”.
This definition relates how human behaviour in an organization has a significant impact on the production in an organization. Off course the behaviour builds a good organizational environment and organizational environment. Top-to-bottom, bottom-to-top, and horizontal communication definitely built by organizational behaviour which in turn cultivates an acceptable discipline. This increases the productivity and lessens the accidents in an organization.
Stephen P. Robbins states as
“Organizational Behaviour studies the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behaviour within organization for the purpose applying such knowledge toward improving n organizations effectiveness.”
How a person, a group and an organizational structure have consequences on the behaviour of an individual within the organization will be studied under Organizational Behaviour. This knowledge will be applied to increase the productivity of an organization